History of Reinforced Concrete and Structural Design

Engineer's Outlook

The average person thinks that concrete has been in common use for many centuries, but such is not the case. Although the Romans made cement – called Pozzolana – before Christ by mixing slaked lime with a volcanic ash from Mount Vesuvius and used it to make concrete for building, the art was lost during the Dark Ages 5th century -15th century A.D. and was not revived until eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (A. D.). Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, Vitruvius, an Architect/Engineer during the golden age of Caesar Augustus (around 25 BC). In his writings around 25 BC in Ten Books on Architecture distinguished types of aggregate appropriate for the preparations of lime mortars. For the use of structural members, he recommended pozzolana, which were volcanic sand from the sandlike beds of Puteoli, brownish-yellow-gray in color near Naples and reddish brown at Rome. He specifies 1 part lime to 3 parts…

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